Sunday 8 October 2023

SMRs - Dirty Dangerous Distractions from Real Climate Action

Published in the Saskatoon Star Phoenix: 

The current hype about Small Modular Nuclear Reactors (SMRs) is that they are safe, carbon neutral, emissions’ free, have no effect upon the environment or human health, have little or no waste and are essential to address the threat of climate change. Nuclear industry executives claim that these ingenious things can be built and running within the next decade.

No nuclear power plant has ever been built on time or within budget. What of the other claims?

Safety. In order to make this claim, the nuclear industry overlooks the effects of radioactivity on both the environment and human health. Catastrophic accidents are ignored. Who speaks for the children? Over 60 research papers identify an increase in leukemia in children in the vicinity of nuclear power plants.

Carbon neutral. Do claims of carbon neutrality include mining, refining, trucking, enriching, fuel rod manufacture, site construction, decommissioning, and waste management? To be fair, these should be included in other sources of energy as well, but enrichment itself is an unusually energy-intensive process. 

Emissions’ free. Nuclear power plants release radioactive gasses as a regular part of their operations and sometimes by accident. Tritium is particularly noxious emission because it can be incorporated into every cellular function and structure in biological organisms. It is likely the culprit in the increased incidence of leukemia in children. Other gasses include krypton and radon. Minute amounts of cesium-137, strontium-90, iodine-131 and carbon-14 are also found in the released gas.

No effect upon the environment. Reactors that use water as their coolant return the water to the rivers and lakes at a higher temperature. A cascade of effects involves fish populations, algae growth and changed mineral content. The proposed SMR for Saskatchewan is a Boiling Water Reactor which will require coolant.

No effect upon human health. A prominent scientific panel in the United States which periodically reviews ionizing radiation and health stated in 2005 that “the smallest dose has the potential to cause a small increase in risk” of cancer in humans. 

Have little or no waste. While the volume of waste may be small, it is not easily contained. Recycling, reprocessing and pyroprocessing are not simple processes, nor are they “clean”. Locations where they have been done remain extremely contaminated. (eg. Mayak in Russia and Hanford in the USA). Furthermore, the treatment removes only the plutonium which is an extremely small proportion of the waste.

Essential to address climate catastrophe. Nothing could be further from the truth. Countries that have avoided the nuclear energy money pit have been able to address their carbon footprint with new and innovated ways to provide their energy needs. The belief that it would provide “baseload” energy is a myth at best because it cannot be powered up and down in the nimble fashion required.

Up and running within the decade. SMRs are a new technology (or an old, discarded technology being brushed off for new sales) and, based upon the record to date, even less likely to fulfill this promise.

Why are the Canadian and United States governments pouring federal tax dollars into the nuclear industry? We are already committed to over $50 million and Premier Moe says the commitment will go to $5 billion! What is the attraction?

The “Nuclear Age” was ushered into being for production of atomic bombs. Nuclear power was an afterthought. With the USA and the UK “modernizing” their nuclear arsenal, we should not overlook the possibility that plutonium extraction is still the motivating factor. It is our tax money that’s funding this project. Is this what we want?





Thursday 1 July 2021

Where are the wetlands?

 Driving to Regina has become painful - not because of the car or the highway but the scenery flying past the window. It is impossible to ignore the unending views of wetlands in the process of being destroyed, the upended root systems of willows and poplars, reeds and bullrushes. The wind rows planted in response to the dustbowl 1930's are long gone. Soon we'll have an unobstructed view of bare fields spread out as far as the eye can see.

When water comes out of the sky and fills our lakes and ponds, our land is populated by frogs, birds and mammals. As the wetlands - the low-lying areas of the fields - are cleared for plowing, their homes disappear as well. Where does the water then go?

As Jim Harding describes in this piece, in Saskatchewan, it finds its way to the Qu'Appelle lakes, the Quill Lakes, and Last Mountain Lake. While the Quill Lakes are not recreational, they are shallow and have flooded fields and access roads as well as the International Bird sanctuary (a World Heritage site) on its East end, a tourist destination for birders. 

The Qu'Appelle Valley chain of lakes is one of Saskatchewan's jewels. Besides a site of great historic value for First Nations and settler folk alike, it is also a recreational destination for many with cottages and homes along its length. The city of Regina is repeatedly using the lake system as replacement for its inadequate sewage treatment facility.

Here's Jim's words:


 By Jim Harding

We shouldn’t be shocked that Regina has again dumped untreated sewage into Saskatchewan’s most vulnerable watershed, the Lower Qu’Appelle. There’s a long history of abuse. Nutrient buildup in Pasqua Lake, downstream from Regina, is 500% higher than precolonial times. Indigenous communities have long witnessed the deterioration, which valley residents and cottagers now also endure.

Authorities that should oversee watershed health have known the risks. A 2006 Stantec report for Regina acknowledges that “Regina effluent constitutes about 75% of the Wascana Creek flow in summer and 85% in the winter.”  The City’s 2013 Utility Budget admits that “the wastewater lagoons are overloaded.” There’s been country-wide neglect. One of Harper’s notorious Omnibus Bills deregulated the Qu’Appelle Valley waterway.

There’s been chronic denying, especially here, with Canada’s highest per capita carbon footprint, of what is in store for watersheds from the climate crisis. Extreme weather, however, was bound to intensify. In June, 2014 Regina received 175 mm of rainfall, nearly 3 times “normal”. Ill-prepared with inadequate infrastructure, the City diverted flow from sewage lagoons and the UV disinfection plant into Wascana Creek and the Lower Qu’Appelle.

Water Security Agency (WSA) tried to divert responsibility from Regina, claiming the sewage was “too diluted” to do harm, targeting “agricultural operations” and “septic systems”, erroneously claiming that Regina’s sewage was “only 2%” of the downstream flow. 

As Fort San mayor I wrote Regina mayor Fougere for some solid information. His reply repeated some WSA spin, but promised an incident report. He sent this, a private consultant’s report, on Sept. 2nd. This admitted that 900,000 cubic metres of untreated sewage had gone into our watershed, but it then engaged in political justifications. Environmental damage would be negligible “due to dilution”; Sections 3-6-3.7 of the City’s Water Permit “allow such a bypass”. It played politics with numbers, saying the releases were “within Permit levels”. They averaged all the June and also July releases and put these into a 6-month timeline. 

No admission of responsibility, just a not so clever whitewash.

On August 20, 2014 we had held a large public meeting in Fort Qu’Appelle, which, unfortunately missed the opportunity to deepen understanding and build a broad-based coalition. Since then, there has been a lot of not-in-my-back yard NIMBYism. Unprecedented flooding in the Quill Lakes, arising from extreme rainfall and decades of wetland destruction by chemical agriculture, which all threaten our watershed, has simplistically been reduced to “illegal drainage”.

When Regina was dumping sewage in 2014, it issued a press release stating it was “committed to environmental protection.” Actions speaks louder. In April, 2015 WSA issued a Non-Compliance Order to Regina because of elevated E coil levels in its discharge. May 15th, Regina issued a water restriction because the exceptionally warm spring had produced excessive algae blooms at Buffalo Pound. The Director of Water said, “It isn’t a circumstance that we had a plan in place for because it isn’t circumstance that we’ve experienced in all the time that the plant has been running.”

The climate crisis will continue to breach normal circumstances; we are already facing heat waves in the high 40 degrees. 

More was to come.

July 27, 2015 Regina again faced unprecedented rainfall (100 mm). Even with the $175 million wastewater upgrade, it had to release sewage downstream. It downplayed the impact, saying it was 1 million litres, but it had to correct itself, that it was 15 million, soon after.

The Water Director claimed that it was unexpected, as a 1 in 25-year event, which was absurd given that 175 mm had fallen on Regina the previous June. The Director, however, let the cat out of the bag saying “another big downfall could spell another similar problem.”

And it predictably did, this June 11, 2021, when, after years of drought, a 60 mm rainfall led to more untreated sewage being dumped downstream. Similar results from similar neglect.

Righteous, one-dimensional outrage over what is presently predictable is no more effective than the Province’s climate denying or Regina’s diversions. Our watershed is threatened for the same reasons as everywhere on the planet. Urban sewage and agricultural runoff, after decades of wetland destruction and neo-liberal government deregulation, will intensify climate impacts. Prairie bio-regions are particularly vulnerable.

A broad-based coalition to press for an effective climate plan, which includes immediate carbon reduction, wetland restoration, serious moves towards regenerative agriculture, and does not let Regina off the hook for ongoing pollution, is now mandatory. It would be great if the NDP opposition provided some leadership, but it, too, still seems trapped by its legacy of toxic, unsustainable energy and neglect of watershed health.

Until we start to see these changes, it will continue to feel like we are living in Groundhog Day.

Harding is a Director of the Qu’Appelle Valley Environmental Assoc, and a retired professor of environmental and justice studies. Sources are in Watershed Under Duress, posted at QVEA.CA.


Thursday 22 October 2020

White Privilege

Systemic racism. It was embarrassing to watch the Chief of Police stumble over the presence of systemic racism but, sad as it might be, she may have the questionable benefit of innocence. While she recognized the presence of racism in the police force, like many whites, she has had no idea what "systemic racism" was.

Indeed, we are taught to see racism in individual or group acts of violence against persons or people of colour. When pressed, we might find a policy or principle that subtly discriminates, for example like facial recognition software. This narrowness permits us ignore the implications of our membership in the dominant white race, the automatic privilege that our skin colour bestows upon us.

As soon as the notion of white privilege is introduced, whites deny it - they honestly don't believe that this type of conferred privilege exists. "I worked hard for what I have", they say, "I don't have any privilege, I'm mortgaged for everything I have." Some will go so far as to claim that people of colour "have more advantages than they do" or that they have more protection under law.

White privilege is like that. If you are white and don't think that you are privileged because of the colour of your skin, you don't know what "white privilege" means. You likely don't know what systemic racism is either.

When I and my friend became lost in the countryside, I had no fear of driving into a farmyard, getting out of the truck and walking to the door. I even opened the porch door and went to the open door beyond. I could be certain that no one would meet me with a gun. My friend who is Cree did not feel the same confidence. 

When I go into the bank to negotiate a loan, I can expect that the person across the table is likely my colour and understands my culture and my predicament.

White privilege means that my people are usually still the heroes in Canadian history books. If we are WASP, It means my culture is reflected by the place names on maps.

White privilege has meant that no patient has ever refused to have me as their physician because of the colour of my skin. It means that practically never have I been submitted to the beady eyes of the store walker. I can be certain that police have never stopped me because of my race.

The sense of belonging to the human circle should not belong as a privilege to a few. It should be an unearned entitlement of every human being. At present, since only a few have it automatically, it is both an unearned advantage and, in fact, confers unwarranted dominance.

In order to change the system, we cannot merely disapprove of "white privilege", although it helps to have key individuals change their attitudes. The first giant step towards change is admitting that it exists. This is why, for the police to shed racism, it is important for the RCMP top chief to admit that systemic racism exists - and for her to do that, she must recognize the presence of white privilege. 

It serves us well to be oblivious about white advantage if we are white - by being oblivious, we can maintain the myth of our meritocracy, & the myth that democratic choice is equally available to us all. People of colour may tell us about white privilege but until we become sufficiently aware of it and willingly - and humbly - give up the unwarranted advantage that white privilege confers, systemic racism will continue.

Inspired by White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack by Peggy McIntosh, printed in "Peace and Freedom" July/August 1989 

Thursday 15 October 2020

Oppose Nuclear Reactors for Saskatchewan*ICUCEC


Sunday 20 September 2020

No Debate on Nuclear Power for Me


My Story:

I was introduced to nuclear physics through my grade two teacher. Not that she taught any physics but she had a huge atomic table that she pulled down like a window blind over written exam questions on the blackboard.


I was fascinated with by the entire concept of elements – that these were the tiny bits that made up the entire world. That all the objects I knew including things that I drank, could be literally boiled down to these 90 + elements. Later in grade 7 or 8, the numbers on the squares acquired meaning and I was further enthralled by atoms and the adding or subtracting protons and neutrons to an atoms. 


In high school I was a “brain”, by today’s terms, a geek or nerd. All it seemed to do is scare people off. To add to the social unacceptability, I read Azimov and Heinlein science fiction long before it was popular.


In an honours physics course in university, I found my place amongst other students who dreamt of interstellar travel and atomic power. One time when we were talking about nuclear power, our physics professor brought up the issue of nuclear waste. In 1962, we students (it was a small honours class) all thought he was a bit of a fuddy duddy. Clearly the smart people working on nuclear power waste would get waste figured out before it was too big of a problem. 


Besides raising the problem of nuclear waste, Dr. Kendal maintained that the building of nuclear power plants was largely for the production of nuclear bombs. As he and I realized that my career was not going to be in physics, I spent more time with him simply in order to understand enough to pass. I thought that he seemed overly cynical but agreed with his position about the use of nuclear bombs. At the end of the school year, he gave me a black and silver lapel pin with the CND symbol which later became the “peace symbol”.


I fell for the “electricity too cheap to monitor” and “taming of the atom” literature. I supported the idea of “reprocessing” and “recycling” that swept the 1960’s and early 1970’s. When I found out that both of these processes exacerbate the problem of nuclear waste, I felt betrayed, upset that the ideas and the industry that I supported could be so fraudulent. It was 1976 when I revised my support saying “if they find an answer to the waste, I might change my mind”. The more I read of the history and science of nuclear power, the more appalled I become that our generation has allowed the world to become so polluted. 


As I write this, I think of my brand new grandchild – and all the other brand new babies that I’ve been meeting. And I couldn’t help feeling angry – angry that this still needs to be said, that the nefarious nuclear industry has politicians in its thrall. For decades our governments have sunk billions of dollars into research, construction, and followed up with public commissions to decide what to do about nuclear power or its waste.


What it doesn’t have in its thrall are investors and the financial markets. In fact, they have not invested private money in any substantial amounts since 1973. Wall street will not back the building of new nuclear power plants, no matter what size they are, so the industry is approaching governments where MPs can spend taxpayer money and try to look like they are doing “something for the environment”.


I’ve debated, taught or spoken about parts of this topic over the years since becoming interested. While working as the Executive Director of Physicians for Global Survival (Canadian affiliate of International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War) what started as a series of information pamphlets became a book, From Hiroshima to Fukushima to You


There is a risk to swimming against the nuclear tide. The nuclear industry has such political power to withstand criticism that a new generation of politicians have been snowballed into supporting it. The nuclear business includes nuclear media control. 


John Gofman, born in 1918, became both a physician and a physicist. He was recruited to the Manhattan project and, working under Oppenheimer, he was the first person to separate plutonium. He went on to discover uranium-232, uranium-233 and protactinium-232 & -233.  When the Manhattan project closed and scientists moved elsewhere, Dr. Gofman returned to a faculty position at Berkeley, California. In 1963, he became head of the Biomedical Research Division for the Livermore National Laboratory. In that position he was constantly directed to find no fault with nuclear power. In 1969, after he discovered a connection between radiation, chromosomal abnormalities and cancer, he co-published a paper asserting that “even low dose radiation harmed humans”. 


He said, “I realized that the entire nuclear program was based on a fraud – namely that there is a ‘safe’ amount of radiation, a permissible dose that wouldn’t hurt anyone.” After his research funding dried up, John went on to discover the lipids HDL & LDL, and demonstrated their role in heart disease. For this feat, he was honoured in 2007 as the “Father of Clinical Lipidology”. 


When this incredible man died, discoverer of four elements and two biological molecules, the New York Times obituary called him a “nuclear gadfly”. 


I’m a rural family physician. I am a jack or jill of all trades and a master or mistress of many. I know what the nuclear industry thinks of me because I see it on social media. Some of the names are unprintable.


Is nuclear power “green”?


The nuclear power reactor itself emits no greenhouse gases when it is operating. To be “green” however would mean that it should have “little or no environmental impact”. There is more to nuclear power than the power plant. Nuclear power includes mining, refining, enrichment, transportation from mine to refinery, transportation from refinery to manufacturing site, from manufacturing to nuclear power reactor. The energy required for enrichment itself would power a small city and must be continual. The amount of CO2 produced during the pouring of concrete, the smelting of the steel and the transportation of all these products has been estimated to require twenty years of clean operating to payback. 


Although the definition of “green” doesn’t mention waste, I would contend that any source of energy which produces waste for which there is no storage, no recycling, and which exists for hundreds of thousands of years cannot be classified as “green”? Since it produces more waste than it produces energy, can it be called green? Advertising itself as green is fraudulent.


Can nuclear power address climate change? There are currently 440 nuclear power plants in operation in the world. At full capacity[1], they would supply about 4% of the world’s energy. 


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But nuclear, like hydro, produces only electrical energy.


Nuclear proponents often compare the CO2 footprint, health impacts and waste with coal. So let’s try to replace the electricity gained from coal with that from nuclear power. How many nuclear power plants do we need? To increase the 10% number to even 50% of electrical power, we need about 2200! If we can produce 50% of the world's electrical power with nuclear, we would still be less than 10% of the total energy used!


According to the World Nuclear Association, there are a total of 55 nuclear power plants under construction today. Since it takes an average of ten years to build a single NPP, we would be needing to be building these 2000 NPP now. Aside from the question of whether we have enough technicians, physicists, and atomic workers to do the job, do we have enough places in the world to build them? Regular nuclear power plants need a lot of space, must be situated beside bodies of water for coolants, and have a secure electrical source of their own. 


Of these 55, several should be given special attention: 

1.    The Shidaowan Chinese reactor is the first fourth generation gas-cooled reactor in the world – it is expected to go on-line as a demonstration, so it planned to have a low output of electricity. No one knows if it will really work. Canada put millions of dollars into two Maple reactors which cannot be operated. 

2.    One of the major expenses in building a reactor is the length of time required so the Finnish Olkiluoto 3, a third generation reactor, was sold to the government as a “fast build” to decrease the costs. It was originally expected to go on-line in 2008, four years after the soil was turned. It will not be ready for loading with fuel until 2022. 

3.    Barakah1 is being built in the UAE. One of the problems with nuclear power is proliferation of nuclear weapons. With its sun, wind and petroleum, I suspect that the only reason for the UAE to get a nuclear reactor is to produce nuclear weapons for the Arab world. 

4.    The Vogtle 3 is one of the only two US NPP in construction – it has been in construction for over ten years, was the cause of a Westinghouse bankruptcy, and still there are questions about its opening date. A news release from May 2020 stated that “it will be extremely challenging for the two Toshiba-Westinghouse AP1000 nuclear reactors to be completed by November 2021 (for Unit 3) and November 2022 (for Unit 4)”.


Besides the length of time required, nuclear power plants average in the billions of dollars each. Neither the waste nor the metal used in the construction of the power plant can be recycled; there is no way to neutralize or turn off the process of waste creation once the power has been turned on. The waste will continue for thousands of years after it leaves the nuclear power plant.



I have said that I would not debate nuclear power and this is why. It is not green and it simply cannot come on-line fast enough with enough power to make even a dent in CO2 emissions. Had we all the will in the world to support nuclear power, technology could not rise to the occasion and given the on-going waste problem, it shouldn’t even try.



[1] They are rarely working at full capacity and some, more than others, are shut down for repairs, refurbishing or recharging.

Monday 2 March 2020

Think Before You Leap

Everyone has had this sort of experience. Leaning over the edge or a cliff, standing on the side of a bridge or on a deck with spaces between the boards, something slips out of a pocket or a hand. In the moments of the fall, you run through your alternatives, 
-       Ignore the loss – sorry you messed up the environment by dropping a tissue or tube of lip gloss.
-       reach way way over risking your own fall? Jump after it if you’re over water? If you are a swimmer?
-       the value of the item – should you watch carefully for its landing and then launch your search party? Or sadly say good bye?
-       how long should you mourn? Days, hours, years or mere minutes?

In the spring of 1965, three guys signed me on to be their cook on a sailing from Trinidad & Tobago to Bermuda. It was a chance to sail for me. I was surprised that they hadn’t had any of my cooking before we launched because I would not have put "cook" into my curriculum vitae. However, I managed to fry eggs and sausages, open cans of spaghetti and satisfy their needs.

On the leg between Grenada and St. Vincent, I was lounging on the deck of the 45 ft sailboat when the silk scarf around my head fluttered off to the sea. It was my favourite scarf. Without engaging thought, I dived overboard. As my feet left the deck, I heard someone shout, “man overboard”.

As I arched over the water, it occurred to me that I had done a supremely stupid thing. I had overlooked the speed of the craft. There was nothing that I could do but follow through on the objective. Upon striking the water, I secured the scarf. 

The sailboat had been having a lovely run in front of the wind. “Coming too” and zigzagging into the wind was not on the skipper's itinerary. Especially when the rolling sea obscured his sight of me, his target. 

I hung there in 200 ft of water; it was salt water, ocean water, so I was very buoyant. With a minimum of effort, I could stay afloat. The sailboat was visible whenever I whip-kicked some elevation. My biggest fears were sharks and other unknown but surely deadly threats in the depths beneath me. I was sure that my skinny legs would look like food to a hungry denizen of the deep.

As the sailboat finally – the guys said that it was over an hour – reached me, I could see by the look on the skipper’s face that imaginary things in the water were not the only threat to my well-being.

Rob, the skipper, said nothing to me although the crew impressed upon me that my actions had resulted in a never-ending string of invectives. I apologized profusely. 

We sailed through the leeward islands, stopping for refuelling and restocking. Guadeloupe was a specially beautiful port.  

Rob never spoke directly to me again. His steely silence was broken when we arrived in Bermuda and he said good bye. I never saw any of them again. Sadly, I don’t even remember their names.

A sad tale about jumping even if we can. Some things are not worth the price we pay.

Wednesday 29 May 2019

Who am I and why would I want to run in an election?

How to describe myself when sometimes I feel that I am an entirely different person every day? Sometimes two or three different people in one day - a concerned citizen, a caring mom, an angry driver. 

I'm a relatively healthy woman in my 70's. I am a widow; my marriage of 47 years ended abruptly and unexpectedly four years ago. I still practice medicine as a doctor - mostly as a locum in Nunavut serving Inuit communities. I have three grown daughters who live in Winnipeg and Calgary and while I'm glad they are on the prairies, it would be nice to have them closer. Fortunately there are younger friends in my life as well.

I am blessed to live in the Touchwood Hills, probably the only hills and woodlands between Regina and Prince Albert. My passive solar house (built in the mid-1980's) uses a small wood heater for back-up warmth. I live on a property managed by the New Roots Community Land Trust whose goals include pesticide and herbicide-free gardening and farming.

My federal riding is Regina-Qu'Appelle; the incumbent is Andrew Scheer, leader of the Conservative party. His platform is the antithesis of a progressive environmentally responsive and collaborative government. His past behaviour and pronouncements suggest repressive responses to crime, health care, Indigenous peoples and immigrants. I could not watch him win without putting up a fight.

The rising climate crisis is less apparent on the prairies than it is on any of Canada's three coasts - the rising warming seas and resultant extreme weather patterns affect us less, protected as we are by the land mass around us. We have noticed the increasing risks of fires - and increasing numbers of tornadoes (the only tornado I had ever heard of as a child was the one in Kansas that propelled Dorothy into the Wizard of Oz). Our weather is less predictable - but any individual can remember unpredictable events in the past.

But environment is not the only attraction that the Green Party has to offer. The Green Party has two documents, Vision Green and Mission: Possible that tackle employment including green jobs, transportation, healthcare, education, and economic transformation. The Green Party is neither right nor left - it's justice, Indigenous Rights, good government, and inclusive government.

My own interests include but are not limited to:

1. Environmental reparations for extractive industries - and developing protocols into the future that no longer ignores what happens when the industry folds; 
2. A national fresh water audit and plans for protections - includes placing a value on wetlands so that the burden of maintenance doesn't rest with reserves, farmers or landowners;
3. A guaranteed liveable income for poverty reduction and possible elimination;
4. An improved health care system with more depth to respond to mental illness with sufficient support systems;
5. Fulfillment of the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (which are not unlike those of the Royal Commission of 1996);
6. A social and educational system that places the rights of children first;
7. A justice system with increased interest in remediation and restorative justice for both victim and offender;
8. Since farmers are mentioned as some of the biggest offenders in carbon production by the UNIPCC, I would like to work with farmers and farming communities on approaches to climate crisis while still retaining production. What would it look like?

I am tired of seeing governments act as though they understand the wealth of scientific research on social, spiritual and environmental issues instead of acting as though they were run by polling agencies, based on popularity contests. It is reprehensible that our government can be made up of elected individuals with blinders to all but their pocketbooks and those of the company they keep.

We know what needs to be done - I believe in the potential of human beings to work together. Let's start doing it!